A major activity is the development and implementation of learning, teaching and assessment resources (such as textbooks and teacher guides), as well as pedagogical models concerning students, teachers and learning environments. The process is informed by the perspectives of experienced teachers, experts in science and science education, and other areas relevant to the particular development (e.g., technology experts). It involves several cycles of design, trial, feedback and reflection, often accompanied by design research. The graduate students of the department, many of whom have had rich practical experience, play an important role in this strand, both as those who design the innovations and as those who study them. The activities are carried out in formal and informal contexts, and in a variety of physical settings (classrooms, outdoors, laboratories, industry).